Intellectual property rights trade and biodiversity the case of seeds and plant varieties written for the iucn project on the convention on biological diversity and the international trade regime by organisations concerned with international trade and or biodiversity conservation. Intellectual property rights trade and biodiversity seeds and plant varieties graham dutfield the intellectual property rights iprs associated with plant genetic resources are often critical to trade yet no unified international framework for a fair ipr regime exists. 23 the trips agreement although the upov acts have provided ipr protection for plant varieties for more than forty years their significance has recently been overshadowed by a different intellectual property treaty the agreement on trade related aspects of intellectual property rights trips or the trips agreement. Intellectual property and plants introduction ship rights to new plant varieties the plant patent act of 1930 ppa 35 usc 161 164 and the plant the impact of intellectual property rights on both the us seed industries and the public interest is also discussed. This work uses changes in intellectual property rights regimes for plants as a way to identify the value and cost to industries and society of the different components of property rights exclusivity research exemptions and revelation of research outcomes
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